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University of California, Riverside

The first form of glycolytic compartmentalization concerns the association of some or all pathway enzymes into multi-protein assemblies as a mechanism to control glycolytic flux. Such associations may be formed either as soluble complexes in the cytosol, or as assemblies on subcellular structures such as membranes, microtubules or actin filaments. Formation of these complexes may promote the direct channelling of intermediates between enzymes without equilibrium with the bulk solution phase, potentially leading to increased coupling of the reactions ( Srere 1987 ). Although the literature contains many reports for the association of two successive glycolytic enzymes, in solution or assembled on scaffolds, claims for glycolytic multi-enzyme complexes and metabolite channelling have been under debate (see Fothergill-Gilmore Michels 1993 and references therein). Strong evidence for complex formation and metabolite channelling has only been reported in plants, where all 10 glycolytic enzymes were found both free in the cytosol and present on the surface of the mitochondria in Arabidopsis and potato tuber ( PUMA Womens Vikky Platform Sneaker Aquiferaquifermetallic Gold sale cheap prices cz600s
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). Here, partitioning of enzymes between (mitochondrially) bound and free (soluble) pools was dynamic and correlated with the mitochondrial respiratory activity; inhibition or stimulation of respiration led to a decrease or increase, respectively, in the degree of association. The glycolytic module seemed to be anchored to the organellar surface by the mitochondrial outer membrane protein VDAC. Since pyruvate is the glycolytic end-product that after oxidative decarboxylation fuels the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, thus supporting respiration, the dynamic association of glycolytic enzymes with mitochondria could serve to adjust the delivery of pyruvate to the mitochondrial demand. Optimization of this supply/demand connection could therefore be achieved by using channelling to prevent withdrawal of upstream glycolytic intermediates. Indeed, strong evidence in favour of metabolite channelling was obtained by NMR studies using [ 13 C]-enriched substrates and isolated plant mitochondria ( Graham et al . 2007 ).


Simplified diagrams of compartmentalized glycolysis. () Dynamic association of a complex of glycolytic enzymes at the outer surface of the mitochondria as observed in plants. The fraction of enzymes associating with mitochondria is related to the respiratory activity and is thus probably determined by organellar demand for the glycolytic end-product, pyruvate. The major glycolytic activity is found in the cytosol and serves various purposes; intermediates are exchanged with other pathways in the cytosol and chloroplasts/plastids. Metabolite channelling in the multi-enzyme complex, however, restricts the exchange of glycolytic intermediates with the cytosol and thus favours the flux towards the mitochondria. () Glycolysis in diatoms and oomycetes. A fusion enzyme comprising TPI and GAPDH is mitochondrial. Genomic information also suggests that the downstream, but not the upstream, enzymes of the glycolytic pathway are present in mitochondria. Glycolytic enzymes are also found or predicted from genome analysis to be present in the cytosol and, in the case of diatoms, plastids. () Comparison of non-compartmentalized glycolysis as occurs in most cell types (i) compared with compartmentalized glycolysis in glycosomes as observed in bloodstream-form (ii) and procyclic, insect-stage trypanosomes and other kinetoplastid species (iii); for a full description, see the text. Arrows with full lines represent demonstrated reactions or fluxes; arrows with dashed lines inferred fluxes and arrows with stippled lines feedback regulation. Positive feedback is indicated by an encircled +, negative feedback by an encircled −. Question marks indicate inferred fluxes between compartments.

Another reported possibility of forming a complex that might allow metabolite channelling is the fusion of the successively acting enzymes triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as found in diatoms and oomycetes, unicellular eukaryotes belonging to the Stramenopiles ( figure1 b ) ( Unkles et al . 1997 ; Liaud et al . 2000 ). Similarly, other combinations of glycolytic enzymes have occasionally been reported as fusion proteins: in the thermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga maritima phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and TPI are fused ( Schurig et al . 1995 ), and among eukaryotic microbes GAPDH and enolase are fused in the dinoflagellates Karina species and Heterocapsa triquetra ( 100% authentic for sale visa payment NIKE Air Max Lebron Xi 11 Low Men Basketball Sneakers New Light Magnet Grey/Dark Magnet Greymgnt G Mango 3YysI2E
). However, there is no experimental evidence that enzyme fusion can provide a mechanism to promote channelling of glycolytic intermediates, and moreover since the reported fusions in neither bacteria nor dinoflagellates catalyse sequential reactions in glycolysis, the close association with other enzymes would be necessary for channelling to rationalize these unusual gene fusion events.

perspective hypothesis theoretical framework

Of course, scientific theories are meant to provide accurate explanations or interpretations of phenomena. But there must be more to it than this explanation. Consider that a theory can be accurate without being very useful. To say that expressive writing helps people “deal with their emotions” might be accurate as far as it goes, but it seems too vague to be of much use. Consider also that a theory can be useful without being entirely accurate. Figure 4.2 is a representation of the classic multistore model of human memory, which is still cited by researchers and discussed in textbooks despite the fact that it is now known to be inaccurate in a number of ways (Izawa, 1999) classic sale online Adidas Performance Mens Crazy Explosive Primeknit Basketball Shoe Red free shipping clearance store cheap excellent find great cheap price U3FGsQQD
. These two examples suggest that theories have purposes other than simply providing accurate explanations or interpretations. Here we look at three additional purposes of theories: the organization of known phenomena, the prediction of outcomes in new situations, and the generation of new research.

Figure 4.1 Representation of the Multistore Model of Human Memory. In the multistore model of human memory, information from the environment passes through a sensory store on its way to a short-term store, where it can be rehearsed, and then to a long-term store, where it can be stored and retrieved much later. This theory has been extremely successful at organizing old phenomena and predicting new ones.

One important purpose of scientific theories is to organize phenomena in ways that help people think about them clearly and efficiently. The drive theory of social facilitation and social inhibition, for example, helps to organize and make sense of a large number of seemingly contradictory results. The multistore model of human memory efficiently summarizes many important phenomena: the limited capacity and short retention time of information that is attended to but not rehearsed, the importance of rehearsing information for long-term retention, the serial-position effect, and so on. Or consider a classic theory of intelligence represented by Figure 4.2 . According to this theory, intelligence consists of a general mental ability, g , plus a small number of more specific abilities that are influenced by g (Neisset et al., 1996) [4] . Although there are other theories of intelligence, this one does a good job of summarizing a large number of statistical relationships between tests of various mental abilities. This theory includes the fact that tests of all basic mental abilities tend to be somewhat positively correlated and the fact that certain subsets of mental abilities (e.g., reading comprehension and analogy completion) are more positively correlated than others (e.g., reading comprehension and arithmetic).

There is a key difference when designing an experience for education compared to other fields that lies in the huge responsibility we have towards our students. How do you make sure that you adhere to sound pedagogical concepts and academic standards? We will detail how we can be sure to stay ahead of the curve in terms of innovation, while maintaining a robust pedagogical foundation.

And what about the results? Do the experiences work? In the last part, we will talk about how we evaluate our learning experiences. Piloting, beta testing and, of course, different in-app analytics (such as eye tracking) are an integral part of our evaluation process. The goal of this Pre-Conference Workshop is to learn from concrete examples of the implementation of 360 VR into the core curriculum of a university and to explore together how this would work for your organisation.

Instructional designers, policy makers, teachers, consultants, media professionals, project managers, students, and anyone interested in VR and ist educational potential

The audience will learn about the didactics and technology involved in the creation of academic 360 VR content. Their main takeaways will be

M2 Morning Event

Time: Price: free of charge Status: places available

Complete workshop description

Date Wednesday, Dec 5 Time Price: freeofcharge Status: places available

Gavin Henrick

Moodle, Ireland


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This workshop covers two areas of learning using Moodle. The first section explodes the key aspects when designing Mobile Learning, and the second looks at the practical aspects of using competencies to help tracking teaching and learning in your courses.

This is open to anyone interested in how to engage learners through competencies as well as connect with learners through mobile devices

M3 Morning Event

Time: Price: 95.00 € Status: places available

Complete workshop description

Date Wednesday, Dec 5 Time Price: 95.00 € Status: places available

Ebba Ossiannilsson

Swedish Association for Distance Education and ICDE, Sweden

Dr. Ebba Ossiannilsson, is the V President for the Swedish Association for Distance Education (SADE), and the V President for the Swedish Association for E-Competence (REK). She is the founder and owner of Ossiannilsson Quality in Open Online Learning (QOOL) Consultancy. Ossiannilsson is a senioer consultant at Mentorix, Denmark.

Dr. Ossiannilsson was awarded the EDEN Fellow title in 2014, and she became Open Education Europa Fellow in 2015. Since the year 2000, she worked at Lund University, Sweden, as an e-learning, open online learning expert, and advisor with special focus on quality. Ossiannilsson is a researcher, advisor and consultant. In addition, she has worked as a consultant at several of the prestige national universities. She is frequently invited as keynote speaker for international, and national conferences, within the area of open, online, flexible, and technology enhanced teaching and learning (OOFAT) and quality. She is board member in national and international associations, in the area of open online learning and education (EDEN EC, former EFQUEL, earlier in EUCEN). She was the research leader for the ICDE research study on global overview of quality models, and the evaluator of the SEQUENT project on quality. Ossiannilsson collaborated with the EC ET working group on digital and online learning on quality in OER, MOOCs and open education and with Commonwealth of Learning. She was an expert for IPTS on their work on the framework for open education. Ossiannilsson is a quality reviewer for both ICDE as well as for EADTU, ECB Check, and also for former EFQUEL. She Was in the board for LANETO, and was among the founders of EPPROBATE. Ossiannilsson is coordinating the ICDE_ON_BOLDIC on behalf of the Swedish Association for Distance Education (SADE). She is in the Board for several scientific Journals and the Editor in the Education Sciences Journal, the topical collection on MOOCs. Ossiannilsson is representing EDEN in ISO, and she works at national level in SIS/ISO (Swedish Standards Institute /ISO. She has a passion to contribute to open education for a Future We Want for All, as is emphasized by UNESCO for 2030.

Ossiannilsson has conducted several research studies in open online learning, including flexible learning, OERs and MOOCs, and personal learning environments. She has conducted several national overview reports, for example, the POERUP, ADOERUP, Global OER Mapping, the IPTS Member States Case Studies onPolicies for Opening up Education, and for the Open Education Working Group. She was one of the promoters for introducing MOOCs in Sweden, and she has finalized some 40+ MOOCs herself, since its start in 2008. She was invited as Quality expert for the investigation on MOOCs by the Swedish Higher Education Authority (UKÄ).

Ossiannilsson is a senior consultant at Mentorix, Denmark, and serve as a pedagogical consultant and researcher for the Next Generation Digital Learning Envioronment (NGDLE). She has conducted research in the area with an extensive publications on personal learning, and learning "just for me".

Ossiannilsson earned her PhD at Oulu University, Finland in 2012 with a dissertation on Benchmarking e-learning in higher education: lessons learned from international projects. Her dissertation has fortunately had a very large outreach and is often cited. Ossiannilsson’s publications comprise over 200 publications: Conference papers, Journal articles, Book Chapters, Reports, Editor for books, a forthcoming book (Springer on open education) and her dissertation. Please follow Ossiannilsson on ResearchGate, Linked In, Blog. and Twitter.

Special Recently Research Projects, and Activities on Quality Work in OOFAT, Including Referen ces

The International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE)

The ICDE research study on The study was on behalf of ICDE, and Coordinated by EADTU. Ossiannilsson was the research leader for the study team comprised of K Williams, A Camilleri and M Brown

Quality Reviewer on Behalf of ICDE for University Terbuka, Indonesia


Ossiannilsson is coordinating the ICDE_ON_BOLDIC on behalf of the Swedish Association for Distance Education (SADE)

The Europen Distance E-learning Network

EC member on behalf of SADE, and besides the EC work she will take the lead for a SIG on quality in TEL

Ossiannilsson is appointed by the EDEN EC to take the lead on a Special Interest Group on Quality and Technology Enabled Learning

EDEN representant in ISO


The European Association for Distance Teaching Universities

Evaluator for the Project Supporting Quality in E-learning European Networks (SEQUENT

Quality Reviewer EADTU, Excellence, University of Nicosia

Member of the Ed board for update of the Excellence manua

Quality Reviewer EADTU, OpenupEd, University of Derby

Member of the Ed board for updating the OpenupEd manual

Quality Reviewer EFQUEL, UNIQUe (University of Nicosia)

Quality Reviewer EFQUEL, ECB Check

European Commission ET Working Group on Open and Distance Learning

IPTS Working Group on Open Education Framework, Focus on Quality

Commonwealth of Learning

IPTS Member States Case Studies onPolicies for Opening Up Education (2016--)

EUA on Comments for the Directive of the European parliament and of the council on copyright in the Digital Single Market



"If you can design the physical space, the social space, and the information space all together to enhance collaborative learning, then that whole milieu turns into a learning technology, and people just love working there, and they start learning with and from each other." John Seely Brown

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